春季常见传染病及预防

      春季是呼吸道传染病的高发季节,由于天气多变,时暖时寒,气候仍然寒冷、干燥,特别是在北方,人们经历了一个漫长的冬天,当春季来临时,人体内环境很难一下子与外界环境相适应,人体的免疫力相对低下,病菌、病毒等致病微生物趁机而入、侵袭人体,特别容易引起流感、流脑、流腮等呼吸道传染病,同时随着气温转暖,手足口病等传染病也逐渐抬头。

1.水痘
      病人从出现皮疹前2日至出疹后6日具有传染性。患病初期可有发热、头痛、全身倦怠等前驱症状,在发病24小时内出现皮疹,皮疹分布呈向心性,即躯干、头部较多,四肢处较少。大部分情况下,病人症状都是轻微的,可不治而愈。

2.流行性腮腺炎
      病人在腮腺明显肿胀前6-7日至肿胀后9日期间具有传染性。 患病初期可有发热、头痛、无力、食欲不振等前驱症状,发病1-2日后出现颧骨弓或耳部疼痛,然后出现唾液腺肿大,通常可见一侧或双侧腮腺肿大。

3.流行性感冒
      流感病人为传染源,主要在人多拥挤的密闭环境中经空气或飞沫传播,亦可通过直接接触病人的分泌物而传播。患病时出现发热、头痛、肌痛、乏力、鼻炎、咽痛和咳嗽症状,还可出现肠胃不适。

4.麻疹
      麻疹病人为传染源,主要通过飞沫或直接接触病人的鼻咽喉分泌物传播。患病初期出现咳嗽、流涕、发热、眼红及口腔内出现白点(柯氏白斑);3至7日后皮肤会出现斑丘疹,通常由面部扩散到全身,维持4至7日,亦平时不注意锻炼,再加上室内空气不流通,很容易发生呼吸道传染性疾病的流行。

5.手足口病
      手足口病病人和隐性感染者均为传染源,主要通过消化道、呼吸道和密切接触等途径传播。多发生于学龄前儿童,尤以3岁以下年龄组发病率最高。主要症状表现为手、足、口腔等部位的斑丘疹、疱疹,少数重症病例可出现脑膜炎、脑炎、脑脊髓炎、肺水肿、循环障碍等。

 二、预防要点

      1.在人群聚集场所打喷嚏或咳嗽时应用手绢或纸巾掩盖口鼻,不要随地吐痰,不要随意丢弃吐痰或揩鼻涕使用过的手纸。
      2.勤洗手,不用污浊的毛巾擦手。
      3.双手接触呼吸道分泌物后(如打喷嚏后)应立即洗手或擦净。
      4.避免与他人共用水杯、餐具、毛巾、牙刷等物品。
      5.注意环境卫生和室内通风,如周围有呼吸道传染病症状病人时,应增加通风换气的次数,开窗时要避免穿堂风,注意保暖。衣服、被褥要经常在阳光下暴晒。
      6.多喝水,多吃蔬菜水果,增加机体免疫能力。
      7.尽量避免到人多拥挤的公共场所。

21 条回复
  1. Kaylin Baker 说:

    I¡¯ve been wondering what I could try. Honestly all these big companies make me nervous so I wanted to go with a lesser-known brand. So I went with LifeCell. I¡¯ve been using it for about a month now and my skin is hydrated and looks younger than it has in a while. I¡¯ve been trying to reduce the effects that the sun, and smoking, and drinking have had on my skin. I¡¯ve been sober and smoke free for 93 days now and this has helped me feel even better about that decision. My wrinkles have decreased somewhat but it wasn¡¯t what I was looking for honestly, I was looking to be more radiant. Now it¡¯s a bit pricey but I have a good income so I don¡¯t mind spending that kind of money. However if this is something out of your price range, try something else, but if you do try this you won¡¯t be disappointed.

  2. YouTube.com 说:

    I don’t even know how I ended up here, but I thought this post was great.

    I don’t know who you are but certainly you are going to a famous blogger if you aren’t already ;) Cheers!

发表评论

发表评论

电子邮件地址不会被公开。